The tag system is unaware of where the images belong, so the quick answer is no. By using the methoed GetTaggedItems you can get images that are tagged a certain way, but you cannot limit it to just check images from a certain image gallery set.
When you get Images by tag you get all kind of images. For example if you get Images by a tag you can get a image that is used as a presentation for a Club and the club is tagged with the tag you're search for. Is there any way to get only images in galleries by tag?