Not sure your exact requirement. Based on what you described, I think you can use FormDataRepository inside EPiServer.Forms.Core.Data namespaceto retrieve the submission data.
If the FormDataRepository doesn't give you everything you need, you might need to check the FormServiceApi which supports OData query would be helpful in some cases.
The options mentioned above should allow you to get the data from scheduled job.
If scheduled job is not restricted requirement, you could consider to subscirbe to FormSubmitted event to update the profile page realtime.
I hope this will help.
I think you can refer this thread-
Or using the service API
Our client wants to create a form for some internal survey.
I am hoping to create a scheduled job to read the form data submitted by users and use it to update their profile pages. Is there a document I can refer.